The prize was endowed in 1952 by AT&T Bell Laboratories (now Bell Laboratories, Alcatel-Lucent) and is currently co-sponsored with the HTC-VIA Group, as a means of recognizing outstanding theoretical or experimental contributions to condensed matter physics.
(a) Schematic illustration of isotropic shrinkage of a liquid capsule under hypertonic condition; the capsule shrinks until the osmotic pressure difference becomes negligible. (b) A series of optical microscope images showing isotropic shrinkage of liquid capsules consisting of 10 wt.% aqueous core of PVA with 100 mOsml−1 and ETPTA membrane, where the capsules are dispersed in aqueous solution with 460 mOsml−1. Scale bar, 100 μm. (Figures reprinted by permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd: Nature ©2014.)
From the Publisher's Summary:
Providing a comprehensive introduction to quantum field theory, this textbook covers the development of particle physics from its foundations to the discovery of the Higgs boson. Its combination of clear physical explanations, with direct connections to experimental data, and mathematical rigor make the subject accessible to students with a wide variety of backgrounds and interests. Assuming only an undergraduate-level understanding of quantum mechanics, the book steadily develops the Standard Model and state-of-the art calculation techniques...
A collimated pulse of ThO molecules enters a magnetically shielded region (not to scale). An aligned spin state (smallest red arrows), prepared via optical pumping, precesses in parallel electric and magnetic fields. The final spin alignment is read out by a laser with rapidly alternating linear polarizations, X and Y, with the resulting fluorescence collected and detected with photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). [from The ACME Collaboration: J. Baron, W.C. Campbell, D. DeMille, J.M. Doyle1, G.
Super-luminous supernovae that radiate more than 1044 ergs per second at their peak luminosity have recently been discovered in faint galaxies at redshifts of 0.1–4. Some evolve slowly, resembling models of 'pair-instability' supernovae. Such models involve stars with original masses 140–260 times that of the Sun that now have carbon–oxygen cores of 65–130 solar masses. In these stars, the photons that prevent gravitational collapse are converted to electron–positron pairs, causing rapid contraction and thermonuclear explosions. Many solar masses of 56Ni are synthesized; this isotope decays to 56Fe via 56Co, powering bright light curves.